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The Skeleton of a Horse.

Skeleton of a horse

(1) - the Phalanx of a finger (путовая, final and копытовидная); (2) - the Knee joint; (3)-; (4) - the Femur; (5) - Седелищная a bone of a basin; (6) - Тазовый a belt(zone) (подвздошная a bone of a basin, лонная a bone of a basin); (7) - the Backbone; (8) - the Edge; (9) - Лопаточный a cartilage; (10) - Эспистрофей; (11) - Атлант; (12) - the Cranium; (13) - the Eye-socket; (14) - Molars; (15) - Резцовая a bone; (16) - the Cutter; (17) - the Dental bone (the bottom jaw); (18) - Лопатка; (19) - the Humeral bone; (20) - the Brest; (21) - Локтевая a bone (forearm); (22) - the Beam bone (forearm); (23) - the Wrist; (24) - Пястная a bone; (25) - the Slate bone; (26) - путовая a bone; (27) - a coronal bone; (28) - копытовидная a bone; (29) - the Slate bone; (30) - Big берцовая a bone; (31) - Bones заплюсны;


The skeleton of a horse will consist of 252 separate bones which are connected between itself in the certain order. Each bone outside is covered dense кожистой with an environment — "надкостницей". The bone is penetrated with blood vessels having her(it) whereas in надкостнице are concentrated, mainly, nerves.

Bones will consist of organic substances (characteristic for an organism, — bodies) and from mineral substances (typical for minerals, — stones).

Mineral substances give bones necessary hardness, and organic substances inform bones some elasticity, without which bone would be too fragile and at any strong impact or falling of an animal would endanger crisis.

Necessary for formation of bones the organism receives mineral substances from food and drink. From here clearly that great value which has the maintenance(contents) in a forage and питьe enough to exhaust and other mineral substances.

Bones of a skeleton are connected between themselves or is motionless, by means of so-called seams, or mobile as joints. In the latter case the articulate ends of bones are covered with a layer of a cartilage. Such two ends of bones are fastened, as a sleeve, "сумочной" a sheaf. Very much frequently for a reinforcement to сумочной to a sheaf one joins, two or болee lateral сухожильных связок.

Bones included in a skeleton are very various by the form, the form and size.

Bones of a head большею a part look like plates, more or less curved. Incorporating between themselves by means of seams, they form the protected cavities in which the important bodies are located. So, in a skull the brain, an ear, in an eye-socket — an eye is located, in oral and носовой cavities — receive the beginning digestive and respiratory ways, etc.

From a skull, along a neck, a back and waists go the bones connected consistently — позвонки, forming a spine column, or a backbone. In it(him) distinguish: 7 позвонков cervical, 18 — back and 6 — lumbar.

The big apertures available in everyone позвонке, at connection позвонков merge in long позвоночный the channel containing a so-called spinal cord.

Direct continuation of a backbone the bone consisting from several сросшихся позвонков and at last, a number(line) tail позвонков, making makes крестцовая a basis of a tail.

From eighteen back позвонков from top to bottom on the right and at the left departs on 18 edges which by means of intermediate dense, half stiffened, cartilages incorporate below to a chest bone. Edges are bent bone a plate, inverted своею camber кнаружи and back. Thus, the bone cell(cage) limited from above — back позвонками, from sides — edges, from below — a chest bone and intermediate cartilages turns out. The cell(cage) this, named a thorax, limits „ a chest cavity " which in a forward part is narrow and squeezed from sides, and behind extends as a round bell. In a chest cavity are located: easy, heart, large blood vessels, through it(her) pass blood vessels, пищепровод and various nerves.

From крестцовой bones depart сросшиеся in a single whole of a bone of "basin". Their connection with крестцовой a bone dense, poorly mobile. Such way forms the second bone ring embracing „ тазовую a cavity " which is limited: from above - крестцовой a bone, from sides — подвздошными bones and from below — лонными and sciatic bones. In тазовой cavities the part of sexual both uric bodies and a part of guts consists.

The space between a thorax and a basin only from above has a bone support from lumbar позвонков, and from sides and from below it becomes isolated belly muscles. This space adjoining in front to chest, and behind to тазовой to cavities, refers to as a belly cavity and contains a part of urinogenital bodies and the most part of bodies of digestion.

To the described part of a skeleton making a basis of a head and a trunk, two more pairs legs(foots), or finitenesses join. A basis of forward finitenesses make: Лопатка, the Humeral bone, Beam and локтевая the bones, Eight bones of a wrist, Пястная a bone with 2 slate, Путовая a bone with 2 сесамовидными, the Coronal bone, Копытная a bone with shuttle.

Basis of back finiteness make: the Femur or a hip, the Knee bone (кол. A cup), Берцовая a bone, or a shin, with малоберцовой a bone, Bones (six) скакательного a joint, Плюсневая a bone with 2 slate, Путовая a bone with 2 сесамовидными, the Coronal bone, Копытная a bone with shuttle.

Large bones of finitenesses belong to tubular bones. They have inside a cavity executed by a so-called bone brain. This substance, despite of such name, has no anything the general(common) with a nervous fabric of a brain and will consist of the fatty fabric (fat) rich with blood.

Bones of finitenesses are connected between themselves movably, — the joints fastened связками.

Forward finitenesses incorporate to a trunk the help of muscles, and back finitenesses — by means of a joint.

The skeleton makes a firm basis for soft parts of a body, gives to a body the stability, the certain form and size and contains the important bodies of a body in the cavities.

The skeleton (as it was already spoken above) will consist of 252 bones and is subdivided as follows:

I. Bones of a head.

A.Kosti of a skull.

Occipital bone1
Crescent bone 1
Темянные bones2
Frontal bones2
Temporal bones2
The basic bone1
Trellised bone1

Acoustical косточки:

Молоточки
Anvils2
Стремянные косточки2
Чечевицеобразные косточки2

B.Kosti of the person.

Носовые bones2
Plaintive bones2
Malar bones2
The big maxillary bones2
Small maxillary bones2
Нёбные bones2
Крыловидные bones2
Сошниковидная a bone1
Носовые bowls4
Заднечелюстная a bone1
Hypoglossal bone1

Teeth:

Cutters14
Canines4
Molars24

II. Bones of a trunk.

A.Kosti of a spine column.

Cervical позвонки 7
Крестцовая a bone1
Back позвонки 18
Tail позвонки18
Lumbar позвонки6

B.Kosti of a thorax.

Edges 36
Chest cavity1

V.Kosti of a basin.

Подвздошные bones 2
Лобковые bones 2
Sciatic bones2

III. Bones of finitenesses.

A.Kosti of forward finitenesses.

Лопаточные bones2
Humeral bones2
Beam bones2
Локтевые bones2

Bones of a wrist:

Крючковидные bones2
Polygonal bones2
Клиновидные bones2
Кубовидные bones2
Конусовидные bones2
Ладьевидные bones2
Полулунные bones2
Гороховидные bones2
Пястные bones2
Slate bones4
Сесамовидные bones4
Путовые bones (бабки)2
Coronal bones2
Копытные bones2
Стрелочные bones2

B.Kosti of back finitenesses.

Femurs2
Popliteal bones2
Big берцовые bones (shin)2
Small берцовые bones2

Bones скакательного a joint:

Calcaneal bones2
Катковые bones2
Кубовилные bones2
Big ладьевидные bones2
Small ладьевидные bones2
Клиновидные bones2
Плюсневые bones2
Slate bones4
Сесамовидные bones4
Путовые bones (бабки)2
Coronal bones2
Копытные bones2
Shooting bones2

Bones and a sheaf refer to as passive bodies of movement.

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© J.O.Azarenko